Understanding Depth of Field
If you are new to photography, you have probably heard the term depth of field being mentioned in various photography websites, blogs or forums. You would probably be wondering what depth of field means and how it can help you in taking better pictures. Whether you are into portrait, landscape, sports, wedding or other forms of photography, depth of field is an important concept you have to understand. It is not complicated to understand and can become one of your best tools in photography. Depth of field or DOF in short, refers to the range of distance within a scene that is considerably sharp. To achieve that effect, we have to understand how it works, now that we know the definition. There are scientific ways to explain DOF but I will not try to bore you with it. I will use simple layman terms to explain what it is and how you can use it to your advantage to produce stunning pictures.
Deep Depth of Field
Have you ever seen landscape pictures that are sharp across the entire scene? There are several reasons to this. One of the main reason for the sharpness is due to deep depth of field. Deep DOF means the range of distance within a scene that is considerably sharp, is wide, covering a wider depth in the scene. This resulted in a picture that is considerably sharp across the entire scene. Deep DOF is important when taking pictures of landscape as you want all details from the foreground through to the background in the scene to be reasonably sharp. It is also important when taking group shots as you do not want anybody in the picture to be out of focus.
When we use deep depth of field, the following attributes on your camera will change:
- Aperture will be small
- Aperture value will be large, such as f/22
- Lens opening will be small
Shallow Depth of Field
When you are shooting portraits, you want your subject to be really sharp and stand out in the picture. You can achieve this effect by using a shallow depth of field. Shallow DOF means the range of distance within a scene that is considerably sharp, is small, covering a smaller depth in the scene. This resulted in a picture that is only sharp at the focused subject while the foreground and background are blurred. Shallow DOF is important when taking portraits as you only want the subject to be sharp and stand out in the picture, free from other distractions in the picture. It is also important for taking macros or close up pictures of small objects, as you want them to be really sharp since they are small. Shallow DOF allow your pictures to have some depth to it, giving it a three dimension effect. When we use shallow depth of field, the following attributes on your camera will change:
- Aperture will be wide
- Aperture value will be small, such as f/1.8
- Lens opening will be wide
Factors that Influence Depth of Field
This is the most obvious factor that will determine how DOF affect the outcome of your pictures. How much of the picture is sharp will be determined by the aperture you set while in manual or aperture priority mode. As stated above, a small aperture value (e.g. f/1.8), will create a shallow DOF in your picture, while a large aperture value (e.g. f/22), will create a deep DOF in your picture.
2) Distance to Subject
The closer you are to your subject, the shallower the DOF, while the further you are away from your subject, the deeper the DOF.
3) Focal Length The longer the focal length you use, the shallower the DOF, given equal subject distance. Zooming will narrow the distance between you and your subject through the lens. As you already know from factor #2, the closer you are to your subject, the shallower the DOF, irregardless of whether you zoomed in or move in closer to the subject. The exact opposite applies when trying to achieve deeper DOF.
In a nutshell
To sum it all up, use a low aperture value when taking portraits and macro. Ensure that the distance between you and your subject is close enough to compose your shot. You can close the distance by zooming your lens in or by walking closer to the subject. This creates a shallow depth of field in your picture. As for landscapes and group shots, use a large aperture value. Ensure that you are not too close to your subjects. You can increase your distance by zooming your lens out or by walking a few steps back from your subjects. This creates a deep depth of field in your picture. Depth of field is important and should be understood properly as it can help you to compose stunning pictures that has depth to it.
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